Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to those people who manage an organization.
Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA.) Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.
Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:
Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals, and provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them.
Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
The process or manner of treating someone or something.
“He still has nightmares resulting from the treatment he received from his captors.”
Medical care for an illness or injury.
“A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started.”
“Cancer survivors who got radiation treatments as children have nearly twice the risk of developing diabetes as adults.”
“The change is due largely to the increased availability of antiretroviral treatment.”
The use of a substance or process to preserve or give particular properties to something.
A treatise; a formal written description or characterization of a subject.
A brief, third-person, present-tense summary of a proposed film.
Administration; The use of limited resources combined with forecasting, planning, leadership and execution skills to achieve predetermined specific goals.
The executives of an organisation, especially senior executives.
Judicious use of means to accomplish an end.
“Excellent time management helped her succeed in all facets of her life.”
the process of dealing with or controlling things or people
“businesses were slow to adopt the key elements of environmental risk management”
“the management of the economy”
the people managing a company or organization, regarded collectively
“management were extremely cooperative”
the responsibility for and control of a company or organization
“a successful career in management”
the treatment or control of diseases or disorders, or the care of patients who suffer them
“long-term management of patients with cirrhosis”
“if there has been any management in the business, it has been concealed from me”