# Torque vs. Force

By Jaxson

## Main Difference

The main difference between Torque and Force is that the Torque is a tendency of a force to rotate an object and Force is a influence that causes an object to change motion.

• Torque

Torque, moment, moment of force or “turning effect” is the rotational equivalent of linear force. The concept originated with the studies of Archimedes on the usage of levers. Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Another definition of torque is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of force from the axis of rotation. The symbol for torque is typically

τ

{displaystyle {boldsymbol {tau }}}

, the lowercase Greek letter tau. When being referred to as moment of force, it is commonly denoted by M.

In three dimensions, the torque is a pseudovector; for point particles, it is given by the cross product of the position vector (distance vector) and the force vector. The magnitude of torque of a rigid body depends on three quantities: the force applied, the lever arm vector connecting the origin to the point of force application, and the angle between the force and lever arm vectors. In symbols:

τ

=

r

×

F

{displaystyle {boldsymbol {tau }}=mathbf {r} times mathbf {F} ,!}

τ

=

r

F

sin

θ

{displaystyle tau =|mathbf {r} |,|mathbf {F} |sin theta ,!}

where

τ

{displaystyle {boldsymbol {tau }}}

is the torque vector and

τ

{displaystyle tau }

is the magnitude of the torque,

r is the position vector (a vector from the origin of the coordinate system defined to the point where the force is applied)

F is the force vector,

× denotes the cross product, which produces a vector that is perpendicular to both r and F following the right-hand rule,

θ

{displaystyle theta }

is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector.The SI unit for torque is N⋅m. For more on the units of torque, see Units.

• Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.

The original form of Newton’s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

Concepts related to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag, which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque, which produces changes in rotational speed of an object. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the adjacent parts; the distribution of such forces through the body is the internal mechanical stress. Such internal mechanical stresses cause no acceleration of that body as the forces balance one another. Pressure, the distribution of many small forces applied over an area of a body, is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate. Stress usually causes deformation of solid materials, or flow in fluids.

Wikipedia
• Torque (noun)

A rotational or twisting effect of a force; a moment of force, defined for measurement purposes as an equivalent straight line force multiplied by the distance from the axis of rotation (SI unit newton metre or Nm; imperial unit [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound-foot_(torque) pound-foot] or lb·ft, not to be confused with the foot pound-force, commonly “foot-pound”, a unit of work or energy)

• Torque (noun)

A tightly braided necklace or collar, often made of metal, worn by various early European peoples.

• Torque (verb)

To twist or turn something.

• Force (noun)

Strength or energy of body or mind; active power; vigour; might; capacity of exercising an influence or producing an effect.

“the force of an appeal, an argument, or a contract”

• Force (noun)

Power exerted against will or consent; compulsory power; violence; coercion.

• Force (noun)

Anything that is able to make a big change in a person or thing.

• Force (noun)

A physical quantity that denotes ability to push, pull, twist or accelerate a body and which has a direction and is measured in a unit dimensioned in mass × distance/time² (ML/T²): SI: newton (N); CGS: dyne (dyn)

• Force (noun)

Something or anything that has the power to produce a physical effect upon something else, such as causing it to move or change shape.

• Force (noun)

A group that aims to attack, control, or constrain.

“police force”

• Force (noun)

The ability to attack, control, or constrain.

“show of force”

• Force (noun)

A magic trick in which the outcome is known to the magician beforehand, especially one involving the apparent free choice of a card by another person.

• Force (noun)

Legal validity.

“The law will come into force in January.”

• Force (noun)

Either unlawful violence, as in a “forced entry”, or lawful compulsion.

• Force (noun)

Ability of an effect a given meaning.

• Force (noun)

A binding, metaphysical, and ubiquitous power in the fictional Star Wars universe created by George Lucas.

• Force (noun)

• Force (verb)

To violate (a woman); to rape. from 14thc.

• Force (verb)

To exert oneself, to do one’s utmost. from 14thc.

• Force (verb)

To compel (someone or something) to do something. from 15thc.

• Force (verb)

To constrain by force; to overcome the limitations or resistance of. from 16thc.

• Force (verb)

To drive (something) by force, to propel (generally + prepositional phrase or adverb). from 16thc.

• Force (verb)

To cause to occur (despite inertia, resistance etc.); to produce through force. from 16thc.

“The comedian’s jokes weren’t funny, but I forced a laugh now and then.”

• Force (verb)

To forcibly open (a door, lock etc.). from 17thc.

“To force a lock.”

• Force (verb)

To obtain or win by strength; to take by violence or struggle; specifically, to capture by assault; to storm, as a fortress.

• Force (verb)

To create an out by touching a base in advance of a runner who has no base to return to while in possession of a ball which has already touched the ground.

“Jones forced the runner at second by stepping on the bag.”

• Force (verb)

To compel (an adversary or partner) to trump a trick by leading a suit that he/she does not hold.

• Force (verb)

To put in force; to cause to be executed; to make binding; to enforce.

• Force (verb)

To provide with forces; to reinforce; to strengthen by soldiers; to man; to garrison.

• Force (verb)

To allow the force of; to value; to care for.

• Force (verb)

To stuff; to lard; to farce.

Wiktionary
• Force (noun)

strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement

“he was thrown backwards by the force of the explosion”

• Force (noun)

an influence tending to change the motion of a body or produce motion or stress in a stationary body. The magnitude of such an influence is often calculated by multiplying the mass of the body and its acceleration.

• Force (noun)

used with a number as a measure of wind strength on the Beaufort scale

“a force-nine gale”

• Force (noun)

coercion or compulsion, especially with the use or threat of violence

“they ruled by law and not by force”

• Force (noun)

mental or moral strength or power

“the force of popular opinion”

• Force (noun)

a person or thing regarded as exerting power or influence

“he might still be a force for peace and unity”

• Force (noun)

the powerful effect of something

“the Committee accepted the force of this argument”

• Force (noun)

an organized body of military personnel or police

“a British peacekeeping force”

• Force (noun)

troops and weaponry

“a battle between the forces of good and evil”

“left-wing guerrilla forces”

• Force (noun)

the army, navy, and air force of a country.

• Force (noun)

the police.

• Force (noun)

a group of people brought together and organized for a particular activity

“a sales force”

• Force (noun)

a waterfall.

• Force (verb)

make a way through or into by physical strength; break open by force

“the back door of the bank was forced”

• Force (verb)

drive or push into a specified position or state using physical strength or against resistance

“thieves tried to force open the cash register”

“Mark forced her arms back above her head”

• Force (verb)

achieve or bring about (something) by effort

“Sabine forced a smile”

“they forced a way through the crowd”

• Force (verb)

artificially hasten the development or maturity of (a plant).

• Force (verb)

make (someone) do something against their will

“the universities were forced to cut staff”

“she was forced into early retirement”

• Force (verb)

put out (a runner) by necessitating an advance to the next base when it is not possible to do so safely.

Oxford Dictionary