The main difference between Satellite and Moon is that the Satellite is a human-made object put into an orbit and Moon is a only natural satellite of Earth.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth’s Moon.
In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit. Of those, about 1,000 were operational; while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km). A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun.
Satellites are used for many purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.
A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit. Usually, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit).
Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth’s only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter’s satellite Io, the Moon is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known.
The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia.
The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. As seen from the Earth, it is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth’s sky, after the Sun. Its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day.
The Moon’s average orbital distance at the present time is 384,402 km (238,856 mi), or 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth, with its apparent size in the sky almost the same as that of the Sun (due to it being 400x farther and larger), resulting in the Moon covering the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipse. This matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future, because the Moon’s distance from Earth is slowly increasing.
The Soviet Union’s Luna program was the first to reach the Moon with unmanned spacecraft in 1959; the United States’ NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, beginning with the first manned lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned lunar landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon’s origin, internal structure, and later history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.
Within human culture, both the Moon’s natural prominence in the earthly sky, and its regular cycle of phases as seen from the Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar based calendar systems, art, and mythology.
A moon or other smaller body orbiting a larger one. from 17th c.
“The Moon is a natural satellite of the Earth.”
“A spent upper stage is a derelict satellite.”
A man-made apparatus designed to be placed in orbit around a celestial body, generally to relay information, data etc. to Earth. from 20th c.
“Many telecommunication satellites orbit at 36000km above the equator.”
A country, state, office, building etc. which is under the jurisdiction, influence, or domination of another body. from 19th c.
An attendant on an important person; a member of someone’s retinue, often in a somewhat derogatory sense; a henchman. from 16th c.
Satellite TV; reception of television broadcasts via services that utilize man-made satellite technology. from 20th c.
“Do you have satellite at your house?”
A grammatical construct that takes various forms and may encode a path of movement, a change of state, or the grammatical aspect. Examples: “a bird flew past”; “she turned on the light”.
Earth’s only permanent natural satellite.
Any natural satellite of a planet.
“the moons of Jupiter”
A month, particularly a lunar month.
A crescent-like outwork in a fortification.
The eighteenth trump/major arcana card of the Tarot.
The thirty-second Lenormand card.
To display one’s buttocks to, typically as a jest, insult, or protest.
(usually followed by over or after) To fuss over something adoringly; to be infatuated with someone.
“Sarah mooned over Sam’s photograph for months.”
“You’ve been mooning after her forever, why not just ask her out?”
To spend time idly, absent-mindedly.
To expose to the rays of the Moon.
(cryptocurrency) to rise in price rapidly (describing a coin or token).