Philosophy vs. Psychology

By Jaxson

Main Difference

The main difference between Philosophy and Psychology is that the Philosophy is a intellectual and/or logical study of general and fundamental problems and Psychology is a study of mental functions and behaviours

  • Philosophy

    Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally “love of wisdom”) is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will?Historically, “philosophy” encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, “natural philosophy” encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, Newton’s 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.

    Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics (“concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being”), epistemology (about the “nature and grounds of knowledge [and]…its limits and validity”), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.

  • Psychology

    Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.

    In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

    Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion (affect), intelligence, phenomenology, motivation (conation), brain functioning, and personality. This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a “hub science”, with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, humanities, and philosophy.

    While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    The love of wisdom.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    An academic discipline that seeks truth through reasoning rather than empiricism.

    “Philosophy is often divided into five major branches: logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and aesthetics.”

  • Philosophy (noun)

    A comprehensive system of belief.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    A view or outlook regarding fundamental principles underlying some domain.

    “a philosophy of government;”

    “a philosophy of education”

  • Philosophy (noun)

    A general principle (usually moral).

  • Philosophy (noun)

    A broader branch of (non-applied) science.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    A calm and thoughtful demeanor; calmness of temper.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    synonym of small pica|nodot=1.

  • Philosophy (verb)

    To philosophize.

  • Psychology (noun)

    The study of the human mind.

  • Psychology (noun)

    The study of human behavior.

  • Psychology (noun)

    The study of animal behavior.

  • Psychology (noun)

    The mental, emotional, and behavioral characteristics pertaining to a specified person, group, or activity.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.

  • Philosophy (noun)

    a particular system of philosophical thought

    “the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle”

  • Philosophy (noun)

    the study of the theoretical basis of a particular branch of knowledge or experience

    “the philosophy of science”

  • Philosophy (noun)

    a theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for behaviour

    “don’t expect anything and you won’t be disappointed, that’s my philosophy”

Oxford Dictionary

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