Patriotism vs. Nationalism

By Jaxson

Main Difference

The main difference between Patriotism and Nationalism is that the Patriotism is a devotion to one’s country and Nationalism is a political ideology.

  • Patriotism

    Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one’s own homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to, but mutually exclusive from those of nationalism.Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the “land” element in love for one’s native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil – compare Blut und Boden.

  • Nationalism

    Nationalism is a political, social, and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation’s sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power (popular sovereignty). It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation’s traditional culture, and cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements. It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism. Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism (national conservatism) or socialism (socialist nationalism) for example.Nationalism as an ideology is modern. Throughout history, people have had an attachment to their kin group and traditions, to territorial authorities and to their homeland, but nationalism did not become a widely-recognized concept until the 18th century. There are three paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. Primordialism (perennialism) proposes that there have always been nations and that nationalism is a natural phenomenon. Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols, myths and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism. Modernism proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that needs the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist.There are various definitions of a “nation”, however, which leads to different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious or identity group; or that multinationality in a state should mean the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.

    The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has often been a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to mismatch between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in an anomie that nationalists seek to resolve. This anomie results in a society reinterpreting identity, retaining elements deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are (or are deemed to be) controlling them.National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.In practice, nationalism can be seen as positive or negative depending on context and individual outlook. Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, and the Zionist movement that created modern Israel. It also was a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. More recently, nationalism was an important driver of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russia. Nationalist economic policies have also been cited as causes for the Opium Wars between the British Empire and the Qing dynasty, and for the severity of the Great Depression in the 1930s.

  • Patriotism (noun)

    Love of one’s country; devotion to the welfare of one’s compatriots; passion which inspires one to serve one’s country.

  • Patriotism (noun)

    The actions of a patriot

  • Patriotism (noun)

    The desire to compete with other nations; nationalism.

  • Nationalism (noun)

    Patriotism; the idea of supporting one’s country, people or culture.

  • Nationalism (noun)

    Support for the creation of a sovereign nation (which does not currently exist).

    “Basque nationalism”

    “Kurdish nationalism”

  • Nationalism (noun)

    Support for the union of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

  • Patriotism (noun)

    the quality of being patriotic; devotion to and vigorous support for one’s country

    “a highly decorated officer of unquestionable integrity and patriotism”

  • Nationalism (noun)

    identification with one’s own nation and support for its interests, especially to the exclusion or detriment of the interests of other nations

    “their nationalism is tempered by a desire to join the European Union”

  • Nationalism (noun)

    advocacy of or support for the political independence of a particular nation or people

    “Scottish nationalism”

Oxford Dictionary

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