The main difference between Logic and Reason is that the Logic is a study of inference and demonstration and Reason is a capacity for consciously making sense of things.
Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική, translit. logikḗ), originally meaning “the word” or “what is spoken”, but coming to mean “thought” or “reason”, is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo and so on.)
There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the ‘logical form’ common to all valid arguments, the study of inference, including fallacies, and the study of semantics, including paradoxes. Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-19th century), and recently logic has been studied in computer science, linguistics, psychology, and other fields.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality.
Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The philosophical field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning. Along these lines, a distinction is often drawn between logical, discursive reasoning (reason proper), and intuitive reasoning, in which the reasoning process through intuition—however valid—may tend toward the personal and the subjectively opaque. In some social and political settings logical and intuitive modes of reasoning may clash, while in other contexts intuition and formal reason are seen as complementary rather than adversarial. For example, in mathematics, intuition is often necessary for the creative processes involved with arriving at a formal proof, arguably the most difficult of formal reasoning tasks.
Reasoning, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. For example, reasoning is the means by which rational individuals understand sensory information from their environments, or conceptualize abstract dichotomies such as cause and effect, truth and falsehood, or ideas regarding notions of good or bad. Reasoning, as a part of executive decision making, is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change, in terms of goals, beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination.
In contrast to the use of “reason” as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration given which either explains or justifies events, phenomena, or behavior. Reasons justify decisions, reasons support explanations of natural phenomena; reasons can be given to explain the actions (conduct) of individuals.
Using reason, or reasoning, can also be described more plainly as providing good, or the best, reasons. For example, when evaluating a moral decision, “morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason–that is, doing what there are the best reasons for doing–while giving equal [and impartial] weight to the interests of all those affected by what one does.”
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.
A method of human thought that involves thinking in a linear, step-by-step manner about how a problem can be solved. Logic is the basis of many principles including the scientific method.
The study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration.
The mathematical study of relationships between rigorously defined concepts and of mathematical proof of statements.
A model-theoretic semantics.
Any system of thought, whether rigorous and productive or not, especially one associated with a particular person.
“It’s hard to work out his system of logic.”
The part of a system (usually electronic) that performs the boolean logic operations, short for logic gates or logic circuit.
“Fred is designing the logic for the new controller.”
To engage in excessive or inappropriate application of logic.
To apply logical reasoning to.
To overcome by logical argument.
That which causes something: an efficient cause, a proximate cause.
“The reason this tree fell is that it had rotted.”
A motive for an action or a determination.
“The reason I robbed the bank was that I needed the money.”
“If you don’t give me a reason to go with you, I won’t.”
Rational faculties, collectively, of conception, judgment, deduction and intuition.
“Mankind should develop reason above all other virtues.”
Something reasonable, in accordance with thought; justice.
To deduce or come to a conclusion by being rational
To perform a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to argue.
To converse; to compare opinions.
To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss.
“I reasoned the matter with my friend.”
To support with reasons, as a request.
To persuade by reasoning or argument.
“to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan”
To adducing reasons.
“to reason down a passion”
To find by logical process; to explain or justify by reason or argument.
“to reason out the causes of the librations of the moon”'”