Lithography (from Ancient Greek λίθος, lithos, meaning ‘stone’, and γράφειν, graphein, meaning ‘to write’) is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material.Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; an oil-based ink could then be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications.
In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate (the orientation of the image is reversed), or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet (rubber) for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing (gravure), wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink; and woodblock printing or letterpress printing, wherein ink is applied to the raised surfaces of letters or images. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines, especially when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s.
The related term “photolithography” refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. “Photolithography” is used synonymously with “offset printing”. The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry.
A printed image produced by lithography; an image produced by etching the image onto a flat surface, then copying the etched surface by applying ink (or the equivalent) to it and pressing another material against it.
To create a copy of an image through lithography.
Of, relating to, or writing for printed publications.
To produce one or more copies of a text or image on a surface, especially by machine; often used with out or off: print out, print off.
“Print the draft double-spaced so we can mark changes between the lines.”
To produce a microchip (an integrated circuit) in a process resembling the printing of an image.
“The circuitry is printed onto the semiconductor surface.”
To write very clearly, especially, to write without connecting the letters as in cursive.
“Print your name here and sign below.”
“I’m only in grade 2, so I only know how to print.”
To publish in a book, newspaper, etc.
“How could they print an unfounded rumour like that?”
To stamp or impress (something) with coloured figures or patterns.
“to print calico”
To fix or impress, as a stamp, mark, character, idea, etc., into or upon something.
To stamp something in or upon; to make an impression or mark upon by pressure, or as by pressure.
To display a string on the terminal.
Books and other material created by printing presses, considered collectively or as a medium.
“Three citations are required for each meaning, including one in print.”
“TV and the internet haven’t killed print.”
Clear handwriting, especially, writing without connected letters as in cursive.
“Write in print using block letters.”
The letters forming the text of a document.
“The print is too small for me to read.”
A visible impression on a surface.
“Using a crayon, the girl made a print of the leaf under the page.”
“Did the police find any prints at the scene?”
A copies by printing.
A photograph that has been printed onto paper from the negative.
A copy of a film that can be projected.
Cloth that has had a pattern of dye printed onto it.
produce (books, newspapers, etc.), especially in large quantities, by a mechanical process involving the transfer of text or designs to paper
“a thousand copies of the book were printed”
produce (text or a picture) by a printing process
“the words had been printed in dark type”
(of a newspaper or magazine) publish (a piece of writing) within its pages
“the article was printed in the first edition”
(of a publisher or printer) arrange for (a book, manuscript, etc.) to be reproduced in large quantities
“in 1923 he printed Yeats’ ‘Biographical Fragments’”
produce a paper copy of (information stored on a computer)
“the results of a search can be printed out”
produce (a photographic print) from a negative
“any make of film can be developed and printed”
write (text) clearly without joining the letters together
“print your name and address on the back of the cheque”
mark (a surface, typically a fabric or garment) with a coloured design or pattern
“a delicate fabric printed with roses”
transfer (a design or pattern) to a surface
“patterns of birds and trees were printed on the cotton”
make (a mark or indentation) by pressing something on a surface or in a soft substance
“a beetle scurried by, printing tracks in the sand with its busy feet”
mark (the surface of a soft substance)
“we printed the butter with carved wooden butter moulds”
fix (something) firmly or indelibly in someone’s mind
“his face was printed on her memory”
the text appearing in a book, newspaper, or other printed publication, especially with reference to its size, form, or style
“she forced herself to concentrate on the tiny print”
the state of being available in published form
“the news will never get into print”
“the report’s contents were widely summarized in the public prints”
relating to the printing industry or the printed media
“the print unions”
an indentation or mark made on a surface or soft substance
“there were paw prints everywhere”
“the FBI matched the prints to those of the robbery suspect”
a picture or design printed from a block or plate or copied from a painting by photography
“the walls were hung with sporting prints”
a photograph printed on paper from a negative or transparency
“please send a black-and-white or colour print to the editor”
a copy of a motion picture on film, especially a particular version of it
“he screened his own print of the film at festivals around the world”
a piece of fabric or clothing with a coloured pattern or design printed on it
“light summer prints”
“a floral print dress”
a pattern or design printed on a garment or fabric
“the blouse is available in an assortment of colours and prints”