Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels. Jaundice in adults is typically a sign indicating the presence of underlying diseases involving abnormal heme metabolism, liver dysfunction, or biliary-tract obstruction. The prevalence of jaundice in adults is rare, while jaundice in babies is common with an estimated 80% affected during their first week of life. The most commonly associated symptoms of jaundice are itchiness, pale feces, and dark urine.Normal levels of bilirubin in blood are below 1.0 mg/dl (17 µmol/l), while levels over 2–3 mg/dl (34-51 µmol/l) typically result in jaundice. High blood bilirubin is divided into two types – unconjugated bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin.Causes of jaundice vary from nonserious to potentially fatal. High unconjugated bilirubin may be due to excess red blood cell breakdown, large bruises, genetic conditions such as Gilbert’s syndrome, not eating for a prolonged period of time, newborn jaundice, or thyroid problems. High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of the bile duct. Blockage of the bile duct may occur due to gallstones, cancer, or pancreatitis. Other conditions can also cause yellowish skin, but are not jaundice, including carotenemia — which can develop from eating large amounts of foods containing carotene — or medications such as rifampin.Treatment of jaundice is typically determined by the underlying cause. If a bile duct blockage is present, surgery is typically required; otherwise, management is medical. Medical management may involve treating infectious causes and stopping medication that could be contributing to the jaundice. Jaundice in newborns may be treated with phototherapy or exchanged transfusion depending on age and prematurity when the bilirubin is greater than 4–21 mg/dl (68-360 µmol/l). The itchiness may be helped by draining the gallbladder or ursodeoxycholic acid. The word “jaundice” is from the French jaunisse, meaning “yellow disease”.