Irony (from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία eirōneía, meaning ‘dissimulation, feigned ignorance’), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
Irony can be categorized into different types, including: verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony. Verbal, dramatic, and situational irony are often used for emphasis in the assertion of a truth. The ironic form of simile, used in sarcasm, and some forms of litotes can emphasize one’s meaning by the deliberate use of language which states the opposite of the truth, denies the contrary of the truth, or drastically and obviously understates a factual connection. Other forms, as identified by historian Connop Thirlwall, include dialectic and practical irony.
A coincidence is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances that have no apparent causal connection with one another. The perception of remarkable coincidences may lead to supernatural, occult, or paranormal claims. Or it may lead to belief in fatalism, which is a doctrine that events will happen in the exact manner of a predetermined plan.
From a statistical perspective, coincidences are inevitable and often less remarkable than they may appear intuitively. An example is the birthday problem, which shows that the probability of two persons having the same birthday already exceeds 50% in a group of only 23 persons.
A humorous context.
Dramatic irony: a theatrical effect in which the meaning of a situation, or some incongruity in the plot, is understood by the audience, but not by the characters in the play.
Ignorance feigned for the purpose of provoking an antagonist; Socratic irony.
The state of two usually unrelated entities, parties, actions, etc. being related through a common connection in an uncommon way.
Of or pertaining to the metal iron.
“The food had an irony taste to it.”
Of objects, the property of being coincident; occurring at the same time or place.
Of events, the appearance of a meaningful connection when there is none.
A coincidence point.
A fixed point of a correspondence; a point of a variety corresponding to itself under a correspondence.
a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances without apparent causal connection
“they met by coincidence”
“it was a coincidence that she was wearing a jersey like Laura’s”
the fact of corresponding in nature or in time of occurrence
“the coincidence of interest between the mining companies and certain politicians”
the presence of ionizing particles or other objects in two or more detectors simultaneously, or of two or more signals simultaneously in a circuit.