# Imply vs. Infer

By Jaxson

• Infer

Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to conclusions. Charles Sanders Peirce divided inference into three kinds: deduction, induction, and abduction. Deduction is inference deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true, with the laws of valid inference being studied in logic. Induction is inference from particular premises to a universal conclusion. Abduction is inference to the best explanation.

Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the field of cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems to emulate human inference.

Statistical inference uses mathematics to draw conclusions in the presence of uncertainty. This generalizes deterministic reasoning, with the absence of uncertainty as a special case. Statistical inference uses quantitative or qualitative (categorical) data which may be subject to random variations.

Wikipedia
• Imply (verb)

to have as a necessary consequence

“The proposition that “all dogs are mammals” implies that my dog is a mammal”

• Imply (verb)

to suggest by logical inference

“When I state that your dog is brown, I am not implying that all dogs are brown”

• Imply (verb)

to hint; to insinuate; to suggest tacitly and avoid a direct statement

“What do you mean “we need to be more careful with hygiene”? Are you implying that I don’t wash my hands?”

• Imply (verb)

to enfold, entangle.

• Infer (verb)

To introduce (something) as a reasoned conclusion; to conclude by reasoning or deduction, as from premises or evidence. from 16th c.

• Infer (verb)

To lead to (something) as a consequence; to imply. (Now often considered incorrect, especially with a person as subject.) from 16th c.

• Infer (verb)

To cause, inflict (something) upon or to someone. 16th-18th c.

• Infer (verb)

To introduce (a subject) in speaking, writing etc.; to bring in. 16thâ€“18th c.

Wiktionary