Because, as, since.
“The astronauts headed for the moon.”
Directed at, intended to belong to.
“I have something for you.”
In honor of, or directed towards the celebration or event of.
“We’re having a birthday party for Janet.”
“The cake is for Tom and Helen’s anniversary.”
“The mayor gave a speech for the charity gala.”
“All those for the motion raise your hands.”
“He wouldn’t apologize; and just for that, she refused to help him.”
“He looks better for having lost weight.”
“She was the worse for drink.”
Over a period of time.
“I’ve lived here for three years.”
“They fought for days over a silly pencil.”
Throughout an extent of space.
On behalf of.
“I will stand in for him.”
Instead of, or in place of.
In order to obtain or acquire.
“I am aiming for completion by the end of business Thursday.”
“He’s going for his doctorate.”
“Do you want to go for coffee?”
“People all over Greece looked to Delphi for answers.”
“Can you go to the store for some eggs?”
“I’m saving up for a car.”
“Don’t wait for an answer.”
“What did he ask you for?”
In the direction of: marks a point one is going toward.
“Run for the hills!”
“He was headed for the door when he remembered.”
By the standards of, usually with the implication of those standards being lower than one might otherwise expect.
“Fair for its day.”
“She’s spry for an old lady.”
Despite, in spite of. See: for all
Used to indicate the subject of a to-infinitive.
“For that to happen now is incredibly unlikely. (=It is incredibly unlikely that that will happen now.)”
“All I want is for you to be happy. (=All I want is that you be happy.)”
Out of; used to indicate a fraction, a ratio
“In term of base hits, Jones was three for four on the day”
Used as part of a score to indicate the number of wickets that have fallen.
“At close of play, England were 305 for 3.”
To be, or as being.
Indicating that in prevention of which, or through fear of which, anything is done.
Used to construe various verbs (see the entries for individual phrasal verbs).
From a specified time in the past.
“I met him last year, but haven’t seen him since.”
From: referring to a period of time ending in the present and defining it by the point in time at which it started, or the period in which its starting point occurred.
Continuously during that period of time.
“I have known her since last year.”