An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi “upon or above” and δῆμος demos “people”) is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population (e.g. increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species), a genetic change in the pathogen reservoir or the introduction of an emerging pathogen to a host population (by movement of pathogen or host). Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging novel pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded.An epidemic may be restricted to one location; however, if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic. The declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence; epidemics for certain diseases, such as influenza, are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidence above this baseline. A few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common cold) would not.
Native to a particular area or culture; originating where it occurs.
“The endemic religion of Easter Island arrived with the Polynesian settlers.”
Peculiar to a particular area or region; not found in other places.
“Kangaroos are endemic to Australia.”
Prevalent in a particular area or region.
“Malaria is endemic to the tropics.”
An individual or species that is endemic to a region.
A disease affecting a number of people simultaneously, so as to show a distinct connection with certain localities.
A widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population.
An occurrence of a disease or disorder in a population at a frequency higher than that expected in a given time period.
Like or having to do with an epidemic; widespread
“Epidemic hysteria occurred upon the incumbent’s reelection.”
a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
“a flu epidemic”
a sudden, widespread occurrence of an undesirable phenomenon
“an epidemic of violent crime”
of the nature of an epidemic
“shoplifting has reached epidemic proportions”