Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to those people who manage an organization.
Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) and Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.
Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:
Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals, and provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them.
Middle managers, examples of which would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
One who directs; the person in charge of managing a department or directorate (e.g., director of engineering), project, or production (as in a show or film, e.g., film director).
A counselor, confessor, or spiritual guide.
That which directs or orientates something.
A device that displays graphical information concerning the targets of a weapons system in real time.
The common axis of symmetry of the molecules of a liquid crystal.
A person whose job is to manage something, such as a business, a restaurant, or a sports team.
The head coach.
An administrator, for a singer or group. en
A window or application whose purpose is to give the user the control over some aspect of the system.
“a file manager; a task manager; Program Manager”