A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or “cold deserts”. Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.
Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind. This picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones. These areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur.
Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and often spines to deter herbivory. Some annual plants germinate, bloom and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture. Animals need to keep cool and find enough food and water to survive. Many are nocturnal and stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day. They tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall. They then reproduce rapidly while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy.
People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life. The cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, and the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how previously barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, especially across the Sahara Desert, and traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold, ivory and other goods. Large numbers of slaves were also taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction also takes place in deserts, and the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy.
Deserted and devoid of inhabitants.
“a desolate isle; a desolate wilderness; a desolate house”
Barren and lifeless.
Made unfit for habitation or use because of neglect, destruction etc.
Dismal or dreary.
Sad, forlorn and hopeless.
“He was left desolate by the early death of his wife.”
To deprive of inhabitants.
To devastate or lay waste somewhere.
To abandon or forsake something.
To make someone sad, forlorn and hopeless.
That which is merited; a just punishment or reward
A barren area of land or desolate terrain, especially one with little water or vegetation; a wasteland.
Any barren place or situation.
Usually of a place: abandoned, deserted, or uninhabited.
“They were marooned on a desert island in the Pacific.”
To leave (anything that depends on one’s presence to survive, exist, or succeed), especially when contrary to a promise or obligation; to abandon; to forsake.
“You can’t just drive off and desert me here, in the middle of nowhere.”
To leave one’s duty or post, especially to leave a military or naval unit without permission.
“Anyone found deserting will be shot.”
(of a place) uninhabited and giving an impression of bleak emptiness
“a desolate Pennine moor”
feeling or showing great unhappiness or loneliness
“I suddenly felt desolate and bereft”
make (a place) appear bleakly empty
“the droughts that desolated the dry plains”
make (someone) feel utterly wretched and unhappy
“he was desolated by the deaths of his treasured friends”
abandon (a person, cause, or organization) in a way considered disloyal or treacherous
“we feel our public representatives have deserted us”
(of people) leave (a place), causing it to appear empty
“the tourists have deserted the beaches”
(of a quality or ability) fail (someone) when most needed
“her luck deserted her”
illegally leave the armed forces
“his life in the regiment had been such a hell that he decided to desert”
a waterless, desolate area of land with little or no vegetation, typically one covered with sand
“the desert of the Sinai peninsula is a harsh place”
“drought and deforestation are turning fragile grasslands into desert”
a situation or place considered dull and uninteresting
“a cultural desert”
a flock of lapwings
“a desert of lapwings rises from a ploughed field”
like a desert
“overgrazing has created desert conditions”
uninhabited and desolate