Color (American English), or colour (Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object’s physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc.
By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were also named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above (red, orange, etc.) by the International Commission on Illumination. The RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm (red); medium-wavelength, peaking near 534–545 nm (green); and short-wavelength light, near 420–440 nm (blue). There may also be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color’s colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the “eyes” of other species also varies considerably from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot readily be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies possess six types of photoreceptors and may have pentachromatic vision. The most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods (such as the mantis shrimp) with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units.The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science. It includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what is commonly referred to simply as light).
The spectral composition of visible light
“Humans and birds can perceive color.”
A particular set of visible spectral compositions, perceived or named as a class.
“Most languages have names for the colors black, white, red, and green.”
Hue as opposed to achromatic colors (black, white and grays).
“He referred to the white flag as one “drained of all color”.”
Human skin tone, especially as an indicator of race or ethnicity.
“Color has been a sensitive issue in many societies.”
“color of one’s skin|complexion|blee|ethnicity|race”
Interest, especially in a selective area.
“a bit of local color”
Any of the standard dark tinctures used in a coat of arms, including azure, gules, sable, and vert. Contrast with metal.
A standard or banner.
“The loss of their colors destroyed the regiment’s morale.”
The system of color television.
“This film is broadcast in color.”
The flag of a nation or team.
“The colors were raised over the new territory.”
“Both of the perpetrators were wearing colors.”
An award for sporting achievement, particularly within a school or university.
“He was awarded colors for his football.”
The morning ceremony of raising the flag.
In corporate finance, details on sales, profit margins, or other financial figures, especially while reviewing quarterly results when an officer of a company is speaking to investment analysts.
“Could you give me some color with regards to which products made up the mix of revenue for this quarter?”
A property of quarks, with three values called red, green, and blue, which they can exchange by passing gluons.
A third-order measure of derivative price sensitivity, expressed as the rate of change of gamma with respect to time, or equivalently the rate of change of charm with respect to changes in the underlying asset price.
The relative lightness or darkness of a mass of written or printed text on a page.
Any of the colored balls excluding the reds.
A front or facade: an ostensible truth actually false.
“also needs better-worded definition”
An appearance of right or authority.
“Under color of law, he managed to bilk taxpayers of millions of dollars.”
Skin color noted as: normal, jaundiced, cyanotic, flush, mottled, pale, or ashen as part of the skin signs assessment.
Conveying color, as opposed to shades of gray.
“Color television and movies were considered a great improvement over black and white.”
To give something color.
“We could color the walls red.”
To apply colors to the areas within the boundaries of a line drawing using colored markers or crayons.
“My kindergartener loves to color.”
To become red through increased blood flow.
“Her face colored as she realized her mistake.”
To affect without completely changing.
“That interpretation certainly colors my perception of the book.”
To attribute a quality to.
“Color me confused.”
To vertices of (a graph) or the regions of (a map) so that no two adjacent ones have the same color.
“Can this graph be two-colored?”
“You can color any map with four colors.”
Foamy or churned to the point of becoming infused with bubbles.
“I like my milkshakes frothy, not flat like this!”
lightweight; lacking depth or substance
“songs with frothy lyrics”
“a frothy argument”
A serving of beer.