Afford vs. Effort

By Jaxson

  • Afford

    The term affordance was created by psychologist James J. Gibson. He originally coined the term in his 1966 book, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, and it occurs in many of his earlier essays (e.g.). However, his best-known definition is taken from his seminal 1979 book, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception:

    The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. The verb to afford is found in the dictionary, the noun affordance is not. I have made it up. I mean by it something that refers to both the environment and the animal in a way that no existing term does. It implies the complementarity of the animal and the environment.

    Though additional meanings have developed, the original definition in psychology includes all transactions that are possible between an individual and their environment. When the concept was applied to design, it started also referring to only those physical action possibilities of which one is aware.

    The word is used in a variety of fields: perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology, environmental psychology, industrial design, human–computer interaction (HCI), interaction design, communication studies, instructional design, science, technology and society (STS), and artificial intelligence.

  • Afford (verb)

    To incur, stand, or bear without serious detriment, as an act which might under other circumstances be injurious;—with an auxiliary, as can, could, might, etc.; to be able or rich enough.

    “I think we can afford the extra hour it will take.”

    “We can only afford to buy a small car at the moment.”

  • Afford (verb)

    To offer, provide, or supply, as in selling, granting, expending, with profit, or without loss or too great injury.

    “A affords his goods cheaper than B.”

    “A man can afford a sum yearly in charity.”

  • Afford (verb)

    To give forth; to supply, yield, or produce as the natural result, fruit, or issue.

    “Grapes afford wine.”

    “Olives afford oil.”

    “The earth affords fruit.”

    “The sea affords an abundant supply of fish.”

  • Afford (verb)

    To give, grant, or confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural result; to provide; to furnish.

    “A good life affords consolation in old age.”

  • Effort (noun)

    The work involved in performing an activity; exertion.

    “It took a lot of effort to find a decent-sized, fully-furnished apartment within walking distance of the office.”

    “He made a conscious effort to not appear affected by the stories in the paper.”

  • Effort (noun)

    An endeavour.

    “Although he didn’t win any medals, Johnson’s effort at the Olympics won over many fans.”

  • Effort (noun)

    A force acting on a body in the direction of its motion.

  • Effort (verb)

    To make an effort.

  • Effort (verb)

    To stimulate.


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