Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to those people who manage an organization.
Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA.) Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.
Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:
Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals, and provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them.
Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
The act of administering; government of public affairs; the service rendered, or duties assumed, in conducting affairs; the conducting of any office or employment; direction.
A body that administers; the executive part of government; the persons collectively who are entrusted with the execution of laws and the superintendence of public affairs; the chief magistrate and his cabinet or council; or the council, or ministry, alone, as in Great Britain.
“Successive US administrations have had similar Middle East policies.”
The act of administering, or tendering something to another; dispensation.
“the administration of a medicine, of an oath, of justice, or of the sacrament.”
“oral administration of insulin”
An arrangement whereby an trading under supervision.
“The company went into voluntary administration last week.”
Administration; The use of limited resources combined with forecasting, planning, leadership and execution skills to achieve predetermined specific goals.
The executives of an organisation, especially senior executives.
Judicious use of means to accomplish an end.
“Excellent time management helped her succeed in all facets of her life.”
the process or activity of running a business, organization, etc.
“the day-to-day administration of the company”
“a career in arts administration”
the people responsible for running a business, organization, etc.
“the university administration took their demands seriously”
the management and disposition of the property of a deceased person, debtor, or insolvent company, by a legally appointed administrator
“the company went into administration”
the management of public affairs; government
“the inhabitants of the island voted to remain under French administration”
the government in power
“successive Conservative administrations enjoyed a comfortable majority”
the term of office of a political leader or government
“the early years of the Reagan Administration”
(in the US) a department or agency of the government
“the US Food and Drug Administration”
the action of dispensing, giving, or applying something
“the administration of justice”
“the oral administration of the antibiotic”
the process of dealing with or controlling things or people
“businesses were slow to adopt the key elements of environmental risk management”
“the management of the economy”
the people managing a company or organization, regarded collectively
“management were extremely cooperative”
the responsibility for and control of a company or organization
“a successful career in management”
the treatment or control of diseases or disorders, or the care of patients who suffer them
“long-term management of patients with cirrhosis”
“if there has been any management in the business, it has been concealed from me”